A Course in Ocean Engineering ~
Article 5.2 - Auto-Course ~ Phone
Section 5.2.6 - Storm-wave Hindcasting. ~ DECTalk format.
(i) Problem Specification.
(ii) Wind Speed Estimation.
(iii) Sea-State Evaluation.
(iv) Extreme Wave-Height.
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Section 5.2.6 - Case: Storm-Wave Hindcasting.

Before leaving the technical side of the auto-course, we will illustrate some of its applications by a short case study. The presentation is in the same format as the case studies in the following three articles. (This meant: Section 1.2, Section 1.3 and Section 1.4.) A short problem specification, written in italic letters, is given, illustrated by a small drawing to set the stage. Then follows an outline of the approach chosen to solve the problem, or a part of the problem. References to the text-book are given. Results, mainly obtained by the report generator of the auto-course, are given, preferably in terms of tables with references to equations in the book.

(i) Problem Specification.
"Simplified wind-to-wave transformation methods are oftenbased on a "rectangular" wind which starts suddenly, blows for a given time with a constant speed, for then suddenly to cease away. One of the few historical storms which evidently behaved in this way, was the storm on the Lake of Gnnesareth, Reference [6].
Select a relevant wind-speed. Estimate the evolution of the sea-state and find the maximum. Calculate the wave height of the largest individual wave."

(ii) Wind Speed Estimation.

We may estimate the wind speed by re-considering the historical documents with particular attention to the wind terms in which the storm was described. Matthew applies the expression Seismos Megas. This denotes a violent shaking of the elements in general, not necessarily at sea. On the other hand, Mark and Luke apply more explicit wind force terms. Luke thus writes Lailaps anemos which means a storm wind, while Mark writes Lailaps Megale Anemos, which means a great storm wind. The two last expressions are evidently levels in the wind force notation used at that time. We may hence approach the first question by calibrating this notation against the Beaufort scale. An attempt has been made in Table 5.2.16 which gives the Beaufort scale in English, German and Norwegian language, together with a ranking of Greek words found in relevant literture. Between the extremes there are three main terms in common use, viz. - Pnevma - Anemos - Lailaps, corresponding to: breeze - gale - storm in English, Brise - Wind - Sturm in German and bris - kuling - storm in Norwegian. Those levels are modified by certain adjectives, such as Leptos - Megas, which correspond to light - strong, leicht -stark and lett - sterk. A more special term, used as a reference point, is Skleros which means just stiff, steif or stiv. The terms applied in the references are now seen to lie in the region about Beaufort 9 to 10. Luke is usually regarded to be the most accurate reporter, besides being an experienced sea-traveller. We may therefore choose the wind speed corresponding to Beaufort 9, that is strong gale, for the present purpose.

(iii) Sea-State Evalutation.

To convert the wind force to wave heights we need to know the fetch length, that is, the distance from land in the direction against the wind. The lake is about 20 km long and about half as wide, and the boat was evidently situated somewhere in the middle of the lake. We may therefore assume the fetch length to have been about 6 km.

Table 5.2.16: Calibration of Greek Wind Terms
against the Beaufort Scale.
Bft.EnglishGerman NorwegianGreekRef.
0CalmStillStille .
1Light airsLeiser ZugFlau vind .
2Light breezeLeichte BriseSvak vind .
3Gentle breezeSchwache BriseLett bris .
4Moderate breezeMässige BriseLaber bris - " -.
5Fresh breezeFrische BriseFrisk bris .
6Strong breezeStarker WindLiten kuling .
7Near galeSteifer WindStiv kuling .
8GaleStürmischer WindSterk kuling .
9Strong galeSturmFull storm
10StormSchwerer SturmFull storm Mark
11Violent stormOrkanartiger SturmFull storm .
12HurricaneOrkanOrkan , .
Greek terms

When wind-speed and fetch length are given, there exists a maximum sea-state which will be obtained after a certain saturation time. With reference to Figure 3.4.6, the sea-state will behave in different ways, depending on how far the storm duration is shorter, equal or larger than this saturation time. The change in the nautic conditions will, however, be most dramatc if those times are equal. In this case the local sea-state follows the trace A-B-C in Figure 3.4.6, where the local maximum is obtained at B. At this point the wind ceases, the local wave-spectrum is just filled up and the wave begin to decay immediately, and in the same rate as they increased. A time profile of the sea-state may then be traced by means of the charts given in Appendix A at the end of the book. This is shown in Figure 5.2.3 with some explanation.

To calculate the maximum sea-state more accurately, we may then call up the auto-course. The input is given directly in the key-code, and with some reference to the Tables 5.2.12 to 15, the consultation may go as follows: (Some additional comments are given in parentheses.)

Operator:  Auto-course version 2.2.
      It's the central, may I have the Post number please?
Client:    34   (Requires the post for wind-drive waves.)
Operator:  Post 34 for wind-driven waves. Give service number, please.
Client:     #4  (Print the post introduction.)
Operator:  The introduction has been printed. The report contains 9 lines.
     Post 34 for wind-driven waves. Give service number, please.
Client:    1    (Requires the Beaufort scale.)
Operator:  Beaufort's wind scale. Give Beaufort number, please.
Client:    9#   (Beaufort number 9.)
Operator:  9.
     Beaufort 9: Strong gale. Wind speed 41, to 47, knots. that is,
     20.9, to 24.5, metres per second. Recommended wind speed is, 
     23. metres per second.
Client:     #6   (Print all data concerning Beaufort 9.)
Operator:  The results have been printed. The report contains 14 lines.
     Beaufort's wind scale. Give Beaufort number, please.
Client:     9#   (Return to the post entrance.)
Operator:  Post 34 for wind-driven waves. Give service number, please.
Client:     3    (Asks for sea-state by given fetch.)
Operator:  Input to: Sea-state by given fetch.
     Confirm the values by 00, or give a new value.
     Wind speed in metres per second: 23.
Client:    00.   (Accepts the wind speed.)
Operator:  Fetch length in kilo-metres, zero.
Client:     6*0# (Fetch length is 6 kilometres.)
Operator:  6
Client:     00  (Confirms the fetch length.)
Operator:  Thank you. To continue the calculations, Push: 1.
Client:     1   (Continues the calculation.)
Operator:  Three blocks with results from: Sea-State by Given Fetch.
Client:     #6  (Prints the complete result table.)
Operator:  All results have been printed. The report conatins 31 lines.
Client:     #4   (Prints the result comments.)
Operator:  The comment has been printed. The report contains 33 lines. 
So far the report printed in this sequence contains the introduction, the Beaufort number identification, complete result table and a comment. It looks as follows:
             WIND DRIVEN WAVES.
  Wind-driven waves are discussed in Article 3.4.
  A differential equation for the wave spectrum moments is
  derived in Section 3.4.4.
  The calculations are carried ou for the one-parameter
  wave spectrum (3.4.49) under the action of a constant wind.
  Derivations are carried out in Sections 3.4.5, and, 3.4.6.
  The sea is initially calm. Wind speed, fetch length and
  duration are chosen according to input specifications.

  Beaufort 9: Strong gale.
  Wind speed 41 to 47 knots, that is, 20.9 to 24.5 metres per second.  
  Recommended wind speed is: 23. metres per second.
  "High waves. Dense streaks of foam along the direction of the wind.
  Sea beings to roll. Visibility affected."

           Sea-State by Given Fetch.

     (Block 1:) Storm conditions.
  Wind speed, v,                                 23.0    m/s.
  Retch length, X,                               6.0     km
  Required time of blowing, t,        (3.4.55)   0.46668 hours.
       That is,                                  28.0005 minutes.

     (Block 2:) Sea-state.
  Significant wave height, Hs,        (3.4.63)   1.51569  metres.
  Wave period, Tz,                    (3.4.64)   4.11623  seconds.
  Increase of Hs with fetch,          (3.4.82)   0.10121  m/km.
  Increase of Hs with time,           (3.4.83)   1.65571  m/hour.

     (Block 3:) Dimensionless variables.
  Sea-state variable, y,              (3.4.57)   0.39516.
  Fetch length, xi,                   (3.4.54)   1.33520e-02.
  Time required, tau,                 (3.4.58)   4.29084e-02.
  Space gradient, dy/d xi,            (3.4.56)   5.92856.
  Time gradient, d y / d tau,         (3.4.46)   2.34275.

  The estimated time required to develop this sea-state, may be
  somewhat short. Effects of sea-depth are not considered.
-  -  -  -  -

(iv) Extreme Wave-Height.

In the sea-state condition chosen, that is A-B-C in Figure 3.4.6, the significant wave height Hs is nearly linearly increasing at the storm maximum, followed by a linear fall with the same rate. The highest wave-crest in this case may be estimated from (4.3.121) with s=1 and Ao=Hs/V8. The largest wave height may be taken as 1.8 times the largest wave crest. The effective number of wave cycles ntau in this storm, is given in (4.3.109) and may be calculated numerically by the help of (4.3.119).

These formulae are not coded explicitly in the auto-course. We may, however, get hold of the basic values for Hs, Tz and dHs/dt from the current result table, and evaluate xc from the formulae by the calculator. To have some kind of documentation, we may shift to keyboard and alphanumeric input, switch on the printer and give commands with ample redundant text. We may also save some work by using the Macro 4 and Macro 5 prepared in Section 5.2.4(iv) above.

The conversation may then continue as shown below. As usual, the letter sequences trapped by the verbal compiler are indicated by bold-face types. Acoustically the conversation will be heard as it is written, with the actors represented by different voices. The text in the report will also be similar, but the numbers will have more decimals.

Client:    2. (go to next block in the result table.)
Operator:  Block 1: Storm conditions.
Client:    2   (Go to next block in the result table.)
Operator:  Block 2: Sea-state.
Client:    #01. (Set the permanent printer on.)
Operator:  The printer is on.
Client:    #08. (Change to keyboard and alpha-numeric input.)
Operator:  Use the keyboard, please.
Client:    Get the results and save the values needed.
           0 to get first line.
Operator:  Significant wave height, Hs, from equation (3.4.63). 1.52 metres.
Client:    Enter Hs into memory 7.
Operator:  Entered into memory 7.
Client:    0 to get next line.
Operator:  Wave period Tz from equation (3.4.64). 4.12 seconds.
Client:    Enter Tz into memory 8.
Operator:  Entered into memory 8.
Client:    0 to get next line.
Operator:  Increase of Hs with fetch, dHs/dx, from (3.4.82). 0.10. m/km.
Client:    0 to get next line.
Operator:  Increase of Hs with time, dHs/dt, from (3.4.83). 1.66. m/hour.
Client:    Enter into memory 9.
Operator:  Entered into memory 9.
Client:    Whe have now saved the data needed, and may key from macro 4.
Operator:  New instrument is macro 4.
Macro-4:   Macro-4: Extreme wave height in a storm 8.0.
Operator:      8.
Macro-4:   Square root
Operator:  Square root gives: 2.828.
Macro-4:   Inverse.
Operator:  Inverse gives: 0.354.
Macro-4:   Recall Hs from memory 7 and multiply.
Operator:  Multiplication with memory 7 gives: 0.5359.
Macro-4:   Enter A-0 into memory 1.
Operator:  Entered into memory 1.
Macro-4:   0.5
Operator:     0.5
Macro-4:   Recall Hs from memory 7 and multiply.
Operator:  Multiplication with memory 7 gives: 0.758.
Macro-4:   Recall Tz from memory 8 and divide.
Operator:  Division with memory 8 gives: 0.184.
Macro-4:   Recall dHs/dt per hour from memory 9
Operator:  Recalled from memory 9: 1.656.
Macro-4:   3600
Operator:     3600.
Macro-4:   Divide to get dHs/dt per second.
Operator:  Division gives: 4.599e-04.
Macro-4:   Divide to get n-tau.
Operator:  Division gives: 400.3.
Macro-4:   Enter n-tau into memory 2.
Operator:  Entered into memory 2.
Macro-4:   s is 1.0
Operator:      1.0
Macro-4:   Enter s into memory 3.
Operator:  Entered into memory 3.
Macro-4:   Key macro 5 to calculate x-c.
Operator:  New instrument is macro 5.

Macro-5:   Macro-5: x-c from equation (4.3.121).
Operator:     1.
Macro-5:   Recall s from memory 3 and add.
Operator:  Addition of memory 3 gives: 2.
Macro-5:   Recall s from memory 3 and divide.
Operator:  Division with memory 3 gives: 2.
Macro-5:   Take the gamma function.
Operator:  Gamma function gives:  1.
Macro-5:   Recall n-tau from memory 2 and multiply.
Operator:  Multiplication with memory 2 gives: 400.3.
Macro-5:   2.0
Operator:     2.
Macro-5:   Multiply.
Operator:  Multiplication gives: 800.6.
Macro-5:   Take the natural log.
Operator:  Natural log is 6.685.
Macro-5:   Duplicate this number.
Operator:  Entered: 6.685.
Macro-5:   Take the natural log again.
Operator:  Natural log is 1.9.
Macro-5:   Recall s from memory 3 and divide.
Operator:  Division with memory 3 gives: 1.9.
Macro-5:   Subtract the second term from the first.
Operator:  Subtraction gives: 4.785.
Macro-5:   Take the square root.
Operator:  Square root gives: 2.188.
Macro-5:   Recall A-0 from memory 1 and multiply.
Operator:  Multiplication gives: 1.172.
Macro-5:   Enter x-c into memory 4.
Operator:  Entered into memory 4.
Macro-5:   Return to the current instrument.
Operator:  New instrument is macro 4.

Macro-4:   Get from wave-crest, x-c, to wave-height, H-max. 1.8
Operator:     1.8
Macro-4:   Recall x-c from memory 4 and multiply.
Operator:  Multiplication with memory 4 gives: 2.11.
Macro-4:   Enter H-max into memory 5.
Operator:  Entered into memory 5.
Macro-5:   Recall the current instrument.
Operator:  Use the keyboard please.

Client:    Recall H-max from Memory 5.
Operator:  Recalled from memory 5:  2.11.
Client:    Please, say this with multiple decimals.
Operator:  I repeat:    2. point. 1. 1. 0. 0. 8. 6.
Client:    Thank you. This is the largest wave-height, in metres,
           encountered on the lake of Gennesaret, during that storm.
Operator:  The printer is off.
Client:    Recall the print information.
Operator:  Number of lines printed is 134.
Client:    Good-bye.
Operator:  It's the Central. Good-bye, and thank you for calling the Auto-Course.

Previous: Section 5.2.5 - Expedition Rules.
Next: References to Article 5.2 - Auto-Course.